The colonies were also subdivided into smaller administrative units as follows: While they were all authoritarian, bureaucratic state systems, their forms of administration varied, partly due to the different national administrative traditions and specific imperialist ideologies of the colonizers and partly because of the political conditions in the various territories that they conquered.
In practice, the French system combined elements of direct administration and indirect rule. It was a pragmatic and parsimonious choice based partly on using existing functional institutions.
Moreover, the failure to dismantle the internal political structures imposed by European colonial regimes allowed ethnic and regional-based political competition which acted as such a strong obstacle to national unity and progressive rule to remain at the core Cuases of the colonisation of africa essay local and national political structures.
England only occupied five hundred lakhs square miles of land in Africa and exerted her influence over ninety lakhs people of that Continent there by establishing her supremacy.
Divisions between identity groups have been predominantly socially constructed or manipulated in most African conflicts. Sovereigntyhowever, did not bring with it freedom from imperialist influences. Colonial powers treated Africa as a series of strategic economic assets and created artificial sociopolitical divisions that did not take into account the African reality, creating disastrous later consequences for countries such as Rwanda Kinzer, ; Hyden, This competitive strategy of Western nations, moreover, enters into the vaster framework of the policy of the two blocs, which for ten years has held a definite menace of atomic disintegration suspended over the world.
The civil wars in Angola and Mozambique perhaps provide the clearest examples of this Hyden, Fifthly, due to the Industrial Revolution, the Capitalists became richer.
Pan-Africanism and Socialism The most outstanding post-independence leaders were cognizant of the challenges of the Cold War and ongoing European economic and political influence and sought remedies to ensure the autonomy and development of their nations.
In general, small-scale societies, the decentralized societies erroneously known as "stateless" societiesused guerrilla warfare because of their size and the absence of standing or professional armies.
Colonial and Soviet Expansionism Western colonial expansion began during the 15th century when Spanish and Portuguese explorers conquered "new" lands in the West Indies and the Americas.
African military resistance took two main forms: He made some local laws and policies, however. Sixthly, many European countries wanted to educate the backward countries of Asia and Europe.
However, no matter the system, they were all alien, authoritarian, and bureaucratic, and distorted African political and social organizations and undermined their moral authority and political legitimacy as governing structures.
But the African societies eventually lost out. Armies were raised by a ruler specifically for the purpose of defending or enlarging borders; civil wars were internal. The conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots has its roots in ethnic rivalry encouraged during British colonial rule.
Autonomous armed forces, wars within wars, control of the population through fear, external state involvement, political mobilization on the basis of identity, and a dramatic reversal in the ratio of civilian to combatant deaths are key features of the new war model as well as significant trends of these conflicts Cramer, Reconstituting Africa's Failed States: As Italy intensified pressure in the s to impose its rule over Ethiopia, the Ethiopians organized to resist.
Thus it was somewhat like British indirect rule, although the French still remained committed to the doctrine of assimilation. By that time western powers such as Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Portugal and Spain, spurred on by their competitive desire to acquire new lands and resources, had colonized the whole of Africa and the areas that we know today as the Americas, Oceania, Australia, New Zealand, the Caribbean, the Middle East, and many parts of Asia.
This practice of favoring one group, or of giving one group a higher status in colonial society, created and promoted inter-group rivalries. Of course, after the defeat in the World War I, Germany had to surrender these colonies. For this last tactic he acquired arms, especially quick-firing rifles, from European merchant and traders in Sierra Leone and Senegal.
In general, indirect rule worked fairly well in areas that had long-established centralized state systems such as chiefdoms, city-states, kingdoms, and empires, with their functional administrative and judicial systems of government.
The Cold War It was this fear of Soviet influence in Africa, particularly on the part of the United States, that created such a major problem for African nations.
In the case of Ethiopia, the imperialist intruder was Italy. One of the many questions that African leaders faced was whether continued economic and political interaction with former colonial powers threatened their autonomy and political viability. In the famous battle of Adwa inone hundred thousand Ethiopian troops confronted the Italians and inflicted a decisive defeat.
The emergence of "big men" in Africa has also led to grievances from corruption and wealth imbalance, which has in turn motivated rebellion. Lastly, weak states are more vulnerable to civil war, and a large number currently exist in Africa. Moreover, the political system that African leaders inherited was structured to benefit the evolving ruling classes with little regard for the needs of the people.
The British colonies were often subdivided into provinces headed by provincial commissioners or residents, and then into districts headed by district officers or district commissioners.
Finally, the unstable political condition of some of the countries of Asia and Africa gave scope for the rise of Colonialism.1 Introduction to African Politics UB/ The essay uses a selection of civil wars in Africa to investigate five commonly attributed causes of civil war and assess the strengths and weaknesses of.
According to the European Colonization map, it shows that France and Great Britain ruled most of the Northern Part of Africa. France and Great Britain ruled other parts of Africa in the South, but not nearly as much as up North. Meanwhile, Germany Portugal, and Belgium ruled most of the Southern part of Africa.
European Justification of Colonization of Asia and Africa Essay Words 4 Pages The principle justification offered by the Europeans for their colonization of Asia & Africa was the moral and technological superiority of the western world.
Decolonization of Africa 1 colonization by Italy).
Britain and France had the largest holdings, but Germany, Spain, Italy, Belgium, and Portugal also had colonies. As a result of obligation to "civilize" the peoples of Africa. Causes World War II saw the colonies help their colonial.
Essay should have the following: Explicit, specific thesis Address all parts of the question Supporting evidence Well organized essay FRQ Assignment: Chapter 26 New Imperialism “Analyze the policies of three European colonial powers regarding Africa between ”.
Africa’s rich history is one of culture, tradition, and simplicity, but because of colonization of many regions in Africa, Africa’s history is now tainted with the themes of massacre, stripping of natural resources, slavery, and wars.Download